"Integrated Management System" (also known as "Integrated Management System", "Integrated Management System", etc.) refers to the coexistence of two or three management systems, integrating public elements together, two Or three systems running under a unified management framework. It usually means that the organization combines the ISO9000 standard, ISO14000 standard, and OHSAS18000 standard into one.
"Integrated audit" means that the certification body audits two or more management systems that have been integrated and operated by the same organization at the same time, using the same audit group and according to the same audit plan. The integrated audit is applicable to many situations, and there are many combinations, such as: integration of ISO9001 and HACCP, integration of ISO9001 and ISO14001 / OHSMS18001, integration of TL9000 and ISO14001, and so on.
It is generally believed that no matter whether the auditee's management system is an integrated system or several separate systems, all the auditee's management system is considered by the same auditing entity as a whole and based on relevant auditing standards (including various certification standards). ) The one-time audits are all in the scope of integrated audits. In accordance with this definition principle, the same auditing group will undertake the auditing of different standards through its internal groupings in one audit. It cannot be called an integrated audit, but it belongs to a "joint audit".
Background of integrated management system
Since 1996, the term Integrated Management System (IMS) has been increasingly cited in various management articles, such as Tranmer J's "Solving Problems in Integrated Management Systems" and Wilkinson's "Quality, Environment, Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System: Examination of Several Key Issues ". These articles describe the status and development of the integrated management system from different aspects.
The business activities of an enterprise involve all aspects of quality management, human resource management, environmental management, occupational safety and health management, marketing management, etc. It is difficult to meet objective needs simply using a management model. If an enterprise establishes an independent and different system over and over due to social trends and customer requirements, it will bring a lot of repetitive work and waste resources. Not only will the actual effect of implementing the standard be ignored, but it will also affect the comprehensive management of the enterprise Improved level and economic benefits.
In recent years, with the in-depth implementation of QMS, EMS and OHSMS, the industry and certification agencies have responded very enthusiastically to the integrated management system.
First, both ISO / TC176 (IS09000 Standardization Technical Committee) and ISO / TC207 (IS014000 Standardization Technical Committee) have involved occupational safety and health issues in the process of formulating their own standards. System standardization work, but due to the wide and complex scope of occupational safety and health, far beyond the scope of work of the two technical committees, the IS09000 and IS014000 standards do not include the content of occupational safety and health. The contents of the ISO9000, ISO14000, and OHSMS18000 management system standards are highly related in terms of standard ideas and standard elements, and are basically the same in the system's operating mode and file structure. It provides the possibility for the establishment and implementation of the integrated management system of QMS, EMS and OHSMS. It is feasible for enterprises to establish integrated management systems and institutions to implement integrated certification audits.
Secondly, the three systems have the same theoretical basis, all adopting Deming's management theory, and all three standards use the PDCA (Planning-Implementation-Inspection-Measures) improvement model as the basic framework.
Again, the basic framework of the three standards is consistent.
Finally, the relevance is clear in terms of the nature of quality, environment, occupational health and safety. If the quality control is not good, more waste, energy and raw materials will be produced, and waste treatment may also cause pollution; as the victims of environmental pollution are often the employees of the company, occupational health and safety problems will occur at the same time. It is impossible to make good products in a crisis-ridden, smoky operating environment. In some high-risk industries, this correlation is even more pronounced. For example: blowout out-of-control accidents in the oil extraction industry, fires and explosions in the chemical industry, and leakage of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. Once these accidents occur, they are both quality accidents and environmental disasters. Therefore, comprehensive measures need to be taken to consider quality, environment, occupational health and safety together.
In addition, the three systems all emphasize continuous improvement; the three systems have the same guiding ideology and emphasis on prevention; they embody the same spirit-writing, doing, and writing.
Three disadvantages of management incompatibility
With the rapid development of ISO9000 certification, ISO14000 certification, and OHSAS18000 certification, enterprises may require certification of multiple management systems. However, because the three systems of QMS, EMS, and OHSMS have different management purposes and object characteristics, the three standards exist. There are large differences, and the application of the management system and its elements varies for different purposes and different stakeholders. QMS is aimed at the needs of customers, EMS serves the needs of numerous stakeholders and the continuous development of environmental protection in society. OHSMS serves internal employees and external visitors of enterprises affected by occupational safety and health conditions. The three systems are self-contained Each performs his or her duties. In addition, most organizations are generally not responsible for quality management, environmental protection, and safety and health. Therefore, most organizations adopt independent systems when implementing systems. There is no or little overlap between systems. This multi-system And the situation of a large number of duplicate files leads to a reduction in enterprise management efficiency, the same work is repeated, and it is difficult to control and implement.
The following problems will exist in the implementation and operation of the management system:
1) Some organizations have to repeat the work in order to meet the requirements of different standards certification. Therefore, three manuals, three sets of procedures, repeated internal audits, and repeated management reviews have appeared, resulting in inefficient management system operation.
2) Due to the inconsistency of certification audits, in order to obtain three types of certificates, enterprises have to undergo three types of audits, which may sometimes be performed by 2-3 certification agencies. This will not only increase the audit fee, transportation fee and hospitality fee of the enterprise, but also consume the time and energy of the management staff and employees, the waste of resources, and the repeated investment of human, material and financial resources will greatly increase the cost of applying for certification. Crack down on the enthusiasm of enterprises for management system certification and hinder the progress of certification.
3) Establish three different management systems based on different management frameworks, forming a coordinated workload within the enterprise. There will also be quality, environment, safety and health management departments starting from their respective professional scope and management responsibilities. Contention for resources, inconsistent government orders, information sharing, or even mutual exclusion.
Advantages of an integrated management system audit
1. The significance of establishing a system
1) Reduce management and certification costs and promote system certification
2) Reduce management disharmony and improve management efficiency
3) Each management area can complement each other
4) Provide overall solutions
5) Conducive to establishing a management concept that integrates quality, environment and occupational safety and health within the organization
2.The significance of integrated audit
——Integrated audit can reduce the organization's related certification costs and reduce the burden on the auditee;
-Implementation of integrated audits reduces disruptions to the organization's product realization process and continuous management time;
——The implementation of integrated audits coordinated the same or similar requirements involved in the daily management of the organization and the differences between the audits due to the separate audits of different systems;
In short, the integrated audit is conducive to the formation of the organizational system management system, and through the review of different systems, it can evaluate the overall management level of the organization more comprehensively, accurately, and objectively, and help the organization to take more reasonable measures and improve Overall performance to achieve the goal of continuous improvement.
Development Trend of Integrated Audit
1) The integrated management system should be an organic integration of the three standards, not a simple addition of the three systems. Before the establishment of an integrated management system, an IMS standard should be formed as the basis for establishing an integrated management system. This standard may still use PDCA as the basic framework.
2) One of the purposes of establishing an integrated management system is to reduce the workload, establish a system, write a manual and a set of procedural documents, and implement a unified internal audit management review.
3) The integrated audit shall transition from one audit and three certificates to one audit and one certificate (IMS certificate).
4) The training of "triathlon" integrated auditors will become the training focus of certification bodies and training institutions. The single audit / certification of quality, environment, occupational health and safety and the integrated audit / certification will coexist for a long time; in most industries, especially the high-risk industries, the single audit / certification will gradually be replaced by the integrated audit / certification.